Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by a virus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease has since spread worldwide, leading to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Symptoms of COVID‑19 are variable, but often include fever, cough, headache, fatigue, breathing difficulties, loss of smell, and loss of taste. Symptoms may begin one to fourteen days after exposure to the virus. At least a third of people who are infected do not develop noticeable symptoms. Of those people who develop symptoms noticeable enough to be classed as patients, most (81%) develop mild to moderate symptoms (up to mild pneumonia), while 14% develop severe symptoms (dyspnea, hypoxia, or more than 50% lung involvement on imaging), and 5% suffer critical symptoms (respiratory failure, shock, or multiorgan dysfunction). Older people are at a higher risk of developing severe symptoms. Some people continue to experience a range of effects (long COVID) for months after recovery, and damage to organs has been observed. Multi-year studies are underway to further investigate the long-term effects of the disease.
COVID‑19 transmits when people breathe in air contaminated by droplets and small airborne particles containing the virus. The risk of breathing these in is highest when people are in close proximity, but they can be inhaled over longer distances, particularly indoors. Transmission can also occur if splashed or sprayed with contaminated fluids in the eyes, nose or mouth, and, rarely, via contaminated surfaces. People remain contagious for up to 20 days, and can spread the virus even if they do not develop symptoms. Several COVID-19 testing methods have been developed to diagnose the disease. The standard diagnostic method is by detection of the virus's nucleic acid by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), or by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) from a nasopharyngeal swab. Several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and distributed in various countries, which have initiated mass vaccination campaigns. Other preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of face masks or coverings has been recommended in public settings to minimize the risk of transmission. While work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures.
Kidney function refers to the function of the kidney to excrete metabolic waste in the body and maintain the stability and acid-base balance of electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and calcium. The examination of renal function includes blood creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, blood and urine β 2-microglobulin, urinary albumin, urinary immunoglobulin G, urinary secretory immunoglobulin A, etc. Kidney is one of the indispensable organs in human body. It forms the urinary system together with ureter, bladder and urethra. The kidney is a pair of parenchymal organs, one on the left and one on the right. They are located on both sides of the spine and close to the posterior abdominal wall. Because this part is located at the waist, people commonly call the kidney "waist". The kidney looks like a broad bean with a smooth surface. Each kidney is 10 ~ 12cm long, 5 ~ 6cm wide, 3 ~ 4cm thick and weighs 120 ~ 150g.